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Navy Developing Unmanned Mine-Detection Boat

by Kris Osborn on May 29, 2013

UISSThe U.S. Navy is developing a new mine-detecting Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) engineered to sweep across the ocean in search of mines using magnetic and acoustic technologies, service officials said.

“We have an Unmanned Influence Sweep System (UISS) which consists of a boat with no people on it with a magnetic and acoustic device that it tows, called the Unmanned Surface Sweep System (US3). Together, this will allow us to replace the MH-53 helicopters that we use today in the legacy fleet to do these kinds of mine sweeps,” said Capt. John Ailes, Mission Modules program manager, Littoral Combat Ship (LCS). 

The Navy plans to award a contract to up to two industry teams to build the new boat next year, following the release of a draft Request for Proposal to industry in December 2012, said Navy spokesman Matt Leonard.

The effort, which began with the Office of Naval Research, is now part of the Navy’s current testing and development of a series of integrated next-generation counter-mine technologies for its Littoral Combat Ship (LCS), a near-shore multi-mission platform engineered to bring a wide range of counter-mine, surface warfare and anti-submarine capabilities to the fleet, service officials said.

The technologies are part of the LCS’ Mine Counter-Measures (MCM) Mission Package, a combination of sensors, vehicles, weapons systems, modules, aircraft and crew members integrated to bring a new combination of mine-detection and neutralization systems to the fleet.

The service plans to conduct fabrication and formal testing of two Low Rate Initial Production units from 2015 to 2017, to be followed by Initial Operational Capability in 2017, he added.

Overall, the MCM Mission Package incorporates a host of technologies engineered to be implemented in specific “increments” depending upon their developmental timetable; the first increment, now being tested in waters off San Diego on board the USS Independence, an LCS variant, combines airborne and underwater mine-detection sensor capabilities.

For instance, Increment 1 incorporates the MH-60 S Sea Hawk helicopter’s Airborne Laser Mine Detection System (ALMDS), a high-tech sensor engineered to use laser technology to scan the water for mine threats at the shallow end of the water column.

“This is the first time the Navy has used lasers searching through the top of the water column to find mines,” Ailes explained. “For the rest of the water column we use a sonar technology.”

The MH-60S also utilizes an Airborne Mine Neutralization System, currently in Low Rate Initial Production, Ailes added.

“The mine neutralization system consists of a carriage. The carriage lowers down and it has neutralizers on it. It uses a fiber optic cable so that when you send the neutralizer out you can drive it into the target. The helicopter operator has both an optical display as well as a sonar display,” he added.

When in proximity to a mine, the Airborne Mine Neutralization System uses a camera with onboard halogen illumination to allow for positive identification prior to detonation; the system uses self-propelled explosive neutralizers to destroy mines, Navy officials explained.

The sonar display comes from another element of the MCM Mission Package called the Remote Multi-Mission Vehicle (RMMV), a diesel-powered semi-submersible with a snorkel tube and communications mast, Ailes explained.

The RMMV is equipped with an AQS-20A mine-hunting sonar device engineered to send and receive sound-wave “pings” through the ocean, analyzing the return signal, Ailes said.

“This allows us to take the ships out of the mine field. The sonar can be lowered depending upon what depth you are searching,” Ailes explained. “Today when you want to go into a mine field, you take a wooden ship in there with people on there. Now, we can send these unmanned systems into the mine field.”

In fact, the RMMV system recently finished up what the Navy calls a reliability growth plan designed to identify and address every potential failure mechanism. “We can now go many hours without an operation mission failure,” Ailes explained.

Sonar technology can help identify the shape, size and distance of a potential threat object by analyzing acoustic signals in relation to the time it takes them to travel, Ailes explained. Since the speed of sound is a known value, the distance a sound wave travels can be determined through an algorithm, providing the location of an object such as a mine.

“Ping by ping you can see things. You put the acoustic energy in and it comes back and you see a response in time and in amplitude –proportional to target strength or a measure of the cross-sectional energy. Different objects have different responses. We teach the operators what a mine looks like and it takes some training,” Ailes added.

At the same time, the Navy is currently in the process of upgrading the sonar technology used on the LCS’ MCM Mission Package to a higher-resolution “synthetic aperture sonar” currently used on submarines, Ailes explained.

This will enable sonar operators to more quickly and easily make determinations regarding what is a mine – and what is not.

“With higher resolution you can more easily tell the shape. As we introduce this incrementally, it will become easier on the operator. What that means is a lower false alarm rate and also less training to get to that same level of proficiency,” he said.

The Navy is also developing a low-frequency broadband sonar, called Knifefish, able to detect clusters of mines buried beneath the ocean floor using synthetic aperture sonar, Ailes added.

“This sonar has the properties which can find things even if they are buried. It measures the density of the signal coming back,” he said.

Knifefish is a 19-foot long, 1,700-pound Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV), a propeller driven mine-sweeping robot made by General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems and Bluefin Robotics.

Formal testing and Low Rate Initial Production of four Knifefish systems will take place from 2014 to 2017, culminating in Initial Operational Capability delivered to the LCS MCM Mission Package in 2017, Leonard explained.

Knifefish, which is able to search for and map mines, emerged from research conducted by the Naval Research Laboratory, Leonard added.

At the same time, Electro-Optical sensors, some of which can be configured onto the end of the AQS-20A are also often used to positively identify mines.

The airborne mine-detection systems are designed to work in tandem with the sonar so that the upper and lower portions of the “water column” are sufficiently swept for mines in an integrated fashion, Ailes said.

The second increment of the MCM Mission Package includes the use of the Fire Scout Vertical Take-off-and-Landing Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS); the Fire Scout is engineered with a special, high-resolution mine-detecting sensor able to determine if mines are buried underneath beach sand along the coastline, called Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis (COBRA), Ailes added.

 

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{ 57 comments… read them below or add one }

blight_ May 29, 2013 at 3:45 pm

Hooray, now the LCS program will have something to deploy for mines.

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Big-Dean May 29, 2013 at 3:59 pm

I hear that the Navy is also working on the LCS ASW module, it's called the Virginia class submarine and they also have a new AAW module for the LCS called the Arleigh Burke destroyer. There also a shore battery module I think it's called the DDG1000 or something like that

The LCS is really making some progress now. I don't know why I was ever a skeptic.

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blight_ May 29, 2013 at 4:03 pm

The LCS can now use network agility and integrated forces to summon CVN's to its aid!

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USS ENTERPRISE May 29, 2013 at 4:55 pm

F-35 FTW ah no. Not accurate.

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Big-Dean May 29, 2013 at 5:23 pm

the "network agility" module is up and working, WOW, that's awesome, and it came in under budget at $789.43 million!

do you know if they got the life raft module working-I hear that they were overweight and slowing the LCS down.

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USS ENTERPRISE May 29, 2013 at 4:58 pm

Well thats a nice concept, Navy. So we have detection. What about removal?

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blight_ May 30, 2013 at 11:29 am

Depends on the mine. Cliche tethered mines would be detonated. There's always that mine-killing fifty-cal with the supercavitating bullets, but it won't work well for deeper-water mine systems like captor.

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Tyler May 31, 2013 at 1:30 pm

As blight stated…or they use a really expensive UUV to ram it and blow they mine up, the UUV unfortunately costs more than the mine.

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blight_ May 31, 2013 at 1:40 pm

The "neutralizer" mentioned in the above article suggests that a device is tethered to a helicopter, lowered in to inspect a target object, and a shaped-charge is fired underwater to perforate the mine. It's not the fastest way to disarm a mine at sea…

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Tyler May 31, 2013 at 3:20 pm

Well my reference was to the Archerfish UUV that is launched from an MH-60 to kill the mine, not a very cheap method. If it was a simpler system, maybe it'd be more reasonable…

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blight_ May 31, 2013 at 3:27 pm

Fair enough. I'm sure the Navy has a number of mine systems in play. I had to look into the "Airborne Mine Neutralization System", which turns up in:
http://www.dote.osd.mil/pub/reports/FY2004/pdf/na

Although I get the feeling we're talking about the same thing.

"AMNS consists of a helicopter-based control console as well as a launch and handling system (LHS) equipped with four unmanned Archerfish neutralizer vehicles. A helicopter operator uses the Archerfish to destroy mines via remote control.

Read more: http://www.defencetalk.com/raytheon-contracted-fo

The Airborne Laser Mine detection system referenced in turn is: http://www.northropgrumman.com/Capabilities/Airbo

Nothing about taking out mines though.

Tad May 29, 2013 at 7:41 pm

What if they just deployed these unmanned mine hunters from ships other than the LCS? Heck, even cheap cargo ships could carry and deploy these.

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USS ENTERPRISE May 29, 2013 at 8:47 pm

We don't have any "cheap cargo ships".

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JoeSovereign May 31, 2013 at 3:32 pm

We need to sub-contract the work. We will contract with Chinese Merchant ships to deploy these. The Chinese stole what ever new tech is in these years ago so no worries on that front.

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blight_ May 29, 2013 at 9:25 pm

Apparently the super expensive LCS is going to run forward and drop a bunch of USV's, then run away like Brave Sir Robin, hoping that RAMs knock out the missiles aimed in its general direction.

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stephen russell May 29, 2013 at 8:12 pm

Apply as well for
Harbor Patrol
Fireboat
Gunboat
aside Mine sweeper
& plus it save lives finding & blowing mines.

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Lance May 30, 2013 at 12:42 am

Nice to see a actual use a UMV can do that can replace a manned mission if you make a mistake no one gets hurt. but thats the lenght a UMV can go manned vehicles always does a better job in combat for none Ordnance disposal jobs.

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Belesari May 30, 2013 at 4:15 pm

Unless that mistake means missing a mine.

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William_C1 May 30, 2013 at 2:11 am

Any ship can be a minesweeper, once. So that ship might as well be unmanned.

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oblatt1 May 30, 2013 at 2:59 am

Less capability for higher price – sounds like business as usual

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USS ENTERPRISE May 30, 2013 at 4:16 pm

How?

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NeoIsolationist May 30, 2013 at 4:56 am

this unmanned boat will be less expensive to operate than the MH-53, and have lower maintenance requirements. Looks like this MCM setup will be very solid (between mh-60S with 30MM cavitating ammo, kingfish, etc). While I'm critical of LCS from an armament perspective, looks like the type will be able to perform MCM role effectively.

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blight_ May 30, 2013 at 9:09 am

True that. But it's like saying that this Ford Aerostar can be catch fast cars because it launches fast UAVs and rocket propelled remote control cars, therefore police don't need Ford Cameros and motorcycles anymore.

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josh May 30, 2013 at 8:01 am
josh May 30, 2013 at 8:01 am

i dont know what good this is gonna do us now since china hacked our networks recently and pretty much got the know hows on most of our weapons that our being devoloped.

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blight_ May 30, 2013 at 9:08 am

With that logic we should just sit on our rears and only deploy what the Chinese already have?

That said, this is the time to pay hackers the world over to wail on the PRC. Sabotage in retaliation for espionage. Keep it up and see what happens.

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josh May 30, 2013 at 9:44 am
blight_ July 2, 2013 at 12:24 pm

Just saw this while looking for another post.

Thanks to Snowden…now we know.

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josh May 30, 2013 at 9:45 am
josh May 30, 2013 at 9:45 am
blight_ May 30, 2013 at 11:26 am

Well, there's no known reporting on it.

If you're hacking military targets, it doesn't make sense to report attacks on units and things that aren't supposed to exist. This is true on both sides of the Pacific. I wouldn't be surprised if some black projects were also compromised here in the US, or if the US mounted a cyberretaliation that wasn't reported on.

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USS ENTERPRISE May 30, 2013 at 2:44 pm

How do you know that we didn't? Remember that computer virus that kinda made an Iranian enrichment centrifuge explode? Yeah, a lot of evidence supports that it was a US attack. How do you know that China hasn't been, aggravated, by a similar such attack.

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commiekiller June 21, 2013 at 2:30 am

they think they are getting special info, a lot of it is made up. send those fake bugs to sabotage the computers

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ms6 May 30, 2013 at 10:01 am

Hack the brain, load it with explosives and drive it into a boat or harbor. It would be easy to do. This is not a good idea to build robots that can be used against us.

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Thomas L. Nielsen May 30, 2013 at 11:05 am

"It would be easy to do" – and you base that statement on….what, exactly?

And why would you go to all that trouble in the first place? If you wanted to conduct that kind of attack, buy a jet-ski and a remote control and you're in business.

Regards & all,

Thomas L. Nielsen
Luxembourg

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ms6 May 30, 2013 at 11:17 am

Does a jet ski look like the picture? Try and think things through.

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blight_ May 30, 2013 at 11:24 am

His point is that teleoperation doesn't require massive DoD budgets to make possible.

Pretty sure Shkval torpedoes would be more dangerous to our surface fleet than some "hacked" boat with explosives. The PLAN allegedly has had export grade Shkval's since 1998.

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Thomas L. Nielsen May 31, 2013 at 2:07 am

No, it doesn't. And why would it need to?

If a USV like the one in the picture suddenly started ignoring operator commands (because somebody "hacked the brain") and came at your ship at full speed, would you really go "Oh, but it looks like one of ours, so it's probably OK"?

And even if you insist that your remote control bomb-loaded vehicle has to "look right" to be successful, a COTS RHIB boat and some fiberglass sheets would solve that problem as well. And do so faster, easier, cheaper and with less risk than hijacking a USV (by hacking or other means), and then taking it to your hidden lair to install explosives before re-deploying it for nefarious purposes.

Regards & all,

Thomas L. Nielsen
Luxembourg

PS: Thanks, blight, yes. That was indeed my point.

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Musson May 30, 2013 at 11:07 am

Seems like a lot of work. Why don't they just at RC controls to their own boats?

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blight_ May 30, 2013 at 11:21 am

Easier to get some martyrs and drive it into the USS Cole…oh wait, it doesn't need hackers.

Why have a Navy if the Chinese boogeyman can LEARN FROM IT! Let's build leis and welcome mats for our new masters!

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Thomas L. Nielsen May 31, 2013 at 3:45 am

"Easier to get some martyrs…."

Achmed the Dead Terrorist: "Oh no. I get seasick, and I can't even throw up….".

Regards & all,

Thomas L. Nielsen
Luxembourg

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USS ENTERPRISE May 30, 2013 at 2:45 pm

Sorry. Taliban and Al Qaeda and god knows whatever terrorist organizations are that way ——->

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SJE May 30, 2013 at 11:40 am

This talk of the bogeymen Chinese hackers completely misses the point: this tech is not meant to counter Chinese, but Iranian threats. also, its relatively lo-tech.

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blight_ May 30, 2013 at 12:00 pm

Indeed, though that RQ-170 ambiguity makes people wonder if the Iranians were indeed able to spoof GPS to bring an airplane down. I lean towards no, but you never know…

That said, the next step is to preprogram these boats to work autonomously. Designate a grid, set some rules about how to sweep, launch a bunch of boats out just after dusk, minesweep all night and attack at dawn. Detection can be autonomous, engaging the mines may require human command authority.

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Conradswims May 30, 2013 at 12:06 pm

Do we really need this? How much does it cost? How about using an torpedo?

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USS ENTERPRISE May 30, 2013 at 4:18 pm

Uhm. Wow there. Torpedoes are NOT inexpensive. They are quite the money's worth. What are they like now? 250G for 1 of those Torps?

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Belesari May 30, 2013 at 4:23 pm

Wait… for what? Finding them them blowing them up????

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josh May 30, 2013 at 12:15 pm

right about now i would like to hear avout what we are making and devoloping to attack chinese military hq like how they are to us rather then hear about mine detection.

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blight_ May 30, 2013 at 12:48 pm

"Oh sure, we'll launch a ddos attack going after these TCP/UDP ports and use these particular zero-day exploits"

Umm, no thanks.

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USS ENTERPRISE May 30, 2013 at 4:19 pm

I got news for ya buddy. There is a little bit of water in between the Stars and Stripes, and People's Republic. And that water can (and probably does) contain mines.

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blight_ May 30, 2013 at 2:20 pm

An off-topic tidbit for the oh-noes-the-Chinese-hax-are-coming:

Hollywood is considering malware embedding to mitigate DMCA-related theft.
http://thehackernews.com/2013/05/hollywood-wants-

If Hollywood gets a green light, perhaps other industries will follow suit.

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USS ENTERPRISE May 30, 2013 at 2:46 pm

Since when did Hollywood actually ask to do something? And aren't they known for special effects?

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Belesari May 30, 2013 at 4:24 pm

Hollywood will get owned.

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Thomas L. Nielsen May 31, 2013 at 2:09 am

I thought it already was?

Regards & all,

Thomas L. Nielsen
Luxembourg

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PolicyWonk June 1, 2013 at 10:30 am

The navy is such a mess in some ways. The LCS was conceived due to the potential threat of swarms of small speedboats in confined areas (such as littorals), and remote controlled speedboats would've been a cheap solution. Instead, ad $400M per sea-frame, we get the LCS, which is to weak to fight off anything other than a speed boat, defenseless against a real naval adversary, and now is perhaps destined (in part) to carry a wine warfare system that is long overdue.

But the LCS is an awfully expensive way to carry this kind of system, considering that its useless for serious littoral fighting (think pacific theater WW2), hasn't got the legs for serious sea duty, etc.

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Erich June 4, 2013 at 9:14 pm

You know someday each individual with enough money can be assigned a remotely controlled war devise and play war at home in front of their PlayStation. We can all potentially be heroes now. Blow up some mines while having a ham sandwich and flipping back and forth from war to the ball game. Oui Vey

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