Home » Air » Navy to Test Electromagnetic Catapult on Carrier

Navy to Test Electromagnetic Catapult on Carrier

by Kris Osborn on May 13, 2014

EMALSThe Navy is preparing to launch the first ship-board tests of a new Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System designed to replace steam catapults and propel fighter jets and other aircraft off the deck of an aircraft carrier and into the sky over the ocean, service officials said.

The EMALS system, which uses an electromagnetic field to propel aircraft instead of the currently used steam catapult, is slated for the new Ford-class aircraft carriers. The first EMALS system has been under construction for several years aboard the USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN 78), the first in class of the new carriers expected to deliver to the Navy in 2016, Navy officials said.

This summer, the Navy will start incremental testing on board the USS Ford wherein “dead loads” placed on weighted sleds are catapulted by the EMALS system into the river, said Capt. Jim Donnelly, program manager for aircraft launch and recovery equipment.

“As things get connected they will increase the number of tests. The first aircraft launch will be after the ship gets to sea,” Donnelly said.

Ship integration and testing for the EMALS technology will mark a substantial milestone in a program which, until now, has largely been conducting land-based flight tests at a Navy facility in Lakehurst, N.J.

“We’ve conducted 452 aircraft launches and just finished up our second phase of aircraft compatibility testing,” Donnelly explained.

The ground-based EMALS catapult tests have launched EA-18G Growlers, F/A-18 Super Hornets, C-2 Greyhound planes and E2D Advanced Hawkeyes, among others. In fact, EMALS even launched an F-35 Joint Strike Fighter at Lakehurst, Donnelly added. The USS Ford has been under construction in recent years at Newport News Shipbuilding, a division of Huntington Ingalls.

Equipment for the EMALS system has been in development on board the ship for several years, Navy officials said. General Atomics was awarded a $573 million deal from the Navy in 2009 for EMALS development.

“We’ve been making component deliveries to the ship in Newport News since 2011. It started early because for EMALS, some of the equipment such as the motor-generators are lower in the ship so they had to be part of the super-lift early on,” Donnelly added.  “At this point we’re delivering components to be installed in the catapult trough which is up on the flight deck.”

Metal decking is slated to be placed over the trough on the flight deck. Donnelly said cabling and linear induction motor sections are still being installed on board the USS Ford. The linear motors are engineered to help create a sequentially activated rolling magnetic field or wave able to thrust or propel aircraft forward, Donnelly explained.

“It is the same type of technology that you see in a rollercoaster except this one is designed for critical launch reliability. It has to work every time you press the launch button. You are getting an electromagnetic field by turning on linear motor sequentially so we don’t energize the whole field in one shot,” he explained.

The electromagnetic field acts on a large 22-foot long aluminum plate, he added. The aluminum plate runs in between stationary sections of 12-foot long linear motors. Electricity runs through the two sides of the motors, creating an electromagnetic wave, Donnelly explained.

“The aircraft motors are kicked in at the beginning. There’s a hydraulic piston that pushes a shuttle forward. The shuttle is what connects to the aircraft launch bar,” Donnelly said.

The EMALS system is engineered to be both steady and tailorable, meaning it can adjust to different aircraft weights and configurations, Donnelly said.  For example, EMALS is configured such that it could launch a lighter weight aircraft, such as an unmanned aircraft system, he added.

This is particularly useful because the amount of thrust needed to launch an aircraft depends upon a range of interwoven factors to include size, shape and weight of the aircraft, wind speed on the carrier deck and the speed of the aircraft carrier in the water, Donnelly explained.

“EMALS better supports the air wing now and in the future. As you may know we’ve changed the make-up of the carrier wing over the years. We’re getting to an air wing that requires higher energy launches and EMALS is much more capable when it comes to higher launch energy requirements,” Donnelly said.

Share |

{ 171 comments… read them below or add one }

Lance Brown May 13, 2014 at 4:58 pm

Thought they tried this on the USS Ford and it isn't working well in the salt air and high pitch of the Atlantic Ocean.


Mambo May 13, 2014 at 6:03 pm

It hasn't even been put to sea yet. A little early for the anti-US equipment fanboys to be making claims of failure.


Bob May 14, 2014 at 12:55 pm

Excellent observation, Mambo. The same anti-US equipment fanboys were criticizing Reagan's Star Wars Initiatives back in the eighties. Today, thanks to Reagan's visions, we have ultramodern satellites, aircraft, and warships armed with laser weapons that can take down enemy objects with pinpoint precision.


Dfens May 15, 2014 at 1:10 pm

Yes, who do these damn taxpayers think they are questioning how the Navy and their beloved defense contractors are spending their money? You didn't earn that money, the government did. Just ask anyone in DC.


Charles James Haas May 23, 2014 at 5:04 am

You missed the point of Mambo, as he was right that the USS Ford is still fitting out and has not begun sea trials yet. That proved that Lance was making a comment that was based on ignorance of the subject.

Charles James Haas May 23, 2014 at 5:01 am

In fact we do have many more modern types of equipment specifically because of SDI as it was properly known. We have the only current laser weapons at sea at this time on the USS Ponce. The SM-3 misile systems are a direct result of SDI. Just because we aren't using killer satellites doesn't mean the program was unsuccessful. After all, the Soviet Union collapsed because of SDI.


Michael May 24, 2014 at 10:59 am

Haas, The 10 year war in Afganistan was a major factor in the Soviet Union break up. Our own little effort to form a democracy and rid the country of the Taliban cost our country over $4 trillion. To say one issue caused the Soviet problems is a day dream.

Nah June 5, 2014 at 2:15 pm

Bob must have forgotten to put a sarcasm tag at the end. Or the post will serve as an unintended sarcasm of the colossal ignorance of Reagan fans.


tmb2 May 13, 2014 at 5:27 pm

Am I the only one not seeing a single paragraph indent in this article?


DLG May 13, 2014 at 6:01 pm

Please reformat & resubmit – text has no paragraph breaks and is impossible to read.


Matthew Jacobs May 13, 2014 at 8:57 pm

Anyone want to venture a guess on how susceptible this system is to battle Damage ?


Bronco46 May 14, 2014 at 1:42 am

Probably not anymore than a steam system would be.


Sean May 14, 2014 at 8:51 am

Steam relies on contained steam pressure. I would imagine something like a single shot in the right place could knock out the capability of steam


Dylan May 14, 2014 at 10:39 am

Seeing as how the steam system probably doesn't require the precision placement of components that this new system does…yes, this system will be more susceptible to battle damage and will probably have longer downtimes if damaged- BUT these are the tradeoffs you make for such an enormous increase in capability. You can't expect a maglev train track to have the same repair times as old fashioned rails and ties.


gritch38 May 14, 2014 at 11:40 am

Hopefully they don't take the steam system out completely as they have worked well for years, I was on a carrier, and have worked with magnet development for accelerators and when they have a problem electrically it takes awhile to fix them.

Bernard May 14, 2014 at 6:34 pm

I'm certain that plugging leaks in a highly pressurized system is no walk in the park either.

gritch38 May 14, 2014 at 11:42 am

the same is true for this new system…


Matthew Jacobs May 15, 2014 at 11:56 am

Yeah but its Pipe, cut out the damaged section and replace and you're back in the fight. In my opinion the Carriers with the new system will have to leave the area of conflict for sometime (Months), because their Aircraft can't take off without the Catapult .


Atomic Walrus May 15, 2014 at 12:25 pm

Not really that simple – the pipe has to have proper straightness and internal profile, or else it's not going to work.

blight_ May 14, 2014 at 10:56 am

Old muskets could be reloaded with gravel. Anyone want to venture a guess on how susceptible firearms are to running out of bullets?

Old cannons could be fired by sending the enemy's shot back at them and using books as wadding. Oh, for the old days…!


Charles James Haas May 23, 2014 at 5:08 am

Actually, steam can be just as dangerous. If you ever seen a steam railroad engine explode it is pretty significant. I think both systems leave little room for battle damage repair we enjoyed in WW II. Having two sets of cats is the redundancy in the system.


Virgil Cuttaway May 13, 2014 at 9:11 pm

The Chinese are working on similar technology. They’ve either stole the technology or working on it concurrently with US efforts. I bet they stole the tech.


blight_ May 13, 2014 at 9:58 pm

That's the least of your worries.


blight_ May 13, 2014 at 9:21 pm

"As you may know we’ve changed the make-up of the carrier wing over the years. We’re getting to an air wing that requires higher energy launches"

Translation: Our aircraft are getting heavier.


009 May 14, 2014 at 12:23 am

Or our pilots are getting heavy.LOL


John May 14, 2014 at 7:18 pm

Not really. A-3D, F-14, A-6E and EA-6B were all heavy, often going over 60,000 on takeoff. The A-6's were so heavy they sometimes launched them almost fuel empty then tanked them up to max for the trip to the beach. FA-18s, even the Superhornets, are not heavier than F-14s and A-6s.


blight_ May 16, 2014 at 6:55 pm

"The A-6's were so heavy they sometimes launched them almost fuel empty then tanked them up to max for the trip to the beach"

Wow, some things never change.

Looks like the Super Hornet and the A-6 probably carry the same effective payload. A-6 at 25 kpounds empty, Super Hornet at 32 kpounds empty.


anthony May 14, 2014 at 5:24 am

Stay on the positive side it works!


Dfens May 14, 2014 at 9:25 am

Wow, this is so high tech. Maybe if they'd taken a cue from the RC glider industry we'd have had electric launch decades ago: http://www.irfmachineworks.com/lbwinch/ Of course, that would defeat the real purpose of this device which is to get plenty of money in the hands of people who deserve it so very little.


xXTomcatXx May 14, 2014 at 9:46 am

I don't believe you understand what EMALS does. EMALS isn't a winch. It's basically rail gun where the projectile in this case is the shuttle that accelerates the aircraft. A winch would be ineffective for this sort of work considering the the massive forces seen on a system that has to launch a large aircraft.


Dylan May 14, 2014 at 10:42 am

There is a reason why we are the only navy in the world to operate fixed wing aircraft off a carrier without a 'ski ramp'. These systems need to handle enormous loads, and the space they consume aboard a carrier is massive and has to be planned out before the keel is laid. If it was so simple, I'm sure many other nations including Russia, India, China, and France would have been lining up to get their own launchers.


blight_ May 14, 2014 at 11:25 am

Brazil and France are the only others operating catapults, and the general constraint is space, which competes with the desire to operate small vessels.

Not many nations are in the business of mobile airfields of a size sufficient enough to put in catapults without cutting into volume meant to carry an air wing.


Dfens May 15, 2014 at 11:01 am

If the constraint is space, then why use the technique that takes up the most space? If I use an electric motor to launch an airplane, then all of the electromagnets are are in one place in one compact unit. If I stretch that motor out into a lengthy linear launcher, then I need hundreds of electromagnets, each one as strong as the few I would need in the electric motor to do the same job. Clearly this linear system has only one distinction, it is the obvious winner when it comes to cost and complexity. As usual, it makes sense for maximizing the income of the defense contractor building the system, but it makes none for the US taxpayer footing the bill.


Dylan May 15, 2014 at 12:32 pm

You're right! By god, this might start a revolution. Instead of carrying guns around full of bullets that have casings and gunpowder and primers and all sorts of unnecessary things, we can just use an electric motor and a winch to accelerate the bullets! Hell, apply the same thing to cannons…and rockets! The possibilities are endless when you ignore basic engineering principles!

hibeam May 14, 2014 at 9:32 am

Very cool. You also end up with a very big power hammer suitable for your close in beam weapons.


Dfens May 15, 2014 at 1:19 pm

Actually, I think they will use these catapults to sling vats of Greek fire onto Somali pirate boats.


blight_ May 16, 2014 at 6:54 pm

Of course they will spend lots of R&D trying to recreate the original recipe…using organic, naturally grown products as they did in the old days.


Barry May 14, 2014 at 9:53 am

This technology should be used for civilian aviation. Would help save a lot of jet-a, lower airport pollution, increase range, lower costs, etc. Possibly also for space launch.


Mitch S. May 14, 2014 at 10:09 am

That launcher you linked to is basically a winch operated by an electric motor.
A different concept.

This (EMALS) tech really isn't new. As the article pointed out it's been used on rollercoasters for decades also it's been used on "MagLev" trains.
The challenge is the detailed engineering to make a system that performs reliably on a ship.
So I doubt there are any big secrets for the Chinese to steal, I figure they can get a system running for demonstrations but it'll take them a while to get it working well for regular shipboard launches.

BTW, speaking of winches and rollercoasters, I found it interesting that the designers of the "KingdaKa" giant coaster considered a magnetic launch system (already used on similar coasters) but ended up with a winch type system driven by hydraulic motors (it stores pressurized fluid in accumulators between launches).
There is more than one way to give something the boot.


USS Gotcha May 14, 2014 at 4:41 pm

Also china has a huge investment in maglev tech for there train systems. Last I read they still have the fastest normal operating train too. The technology transition should actually be easier for them to have made the catapult than it is for the US.


Dfens May 15, 2014 at 12:56 pm

Most roller coasters use a motor (gas, electric or hydraulic) and chain system to drag the cars up to the top of the first hill because it makes a lot more financial sense to use that kind of system than a linear electric system or even a hydraulic ram.


Mitch S. May 16, 2014 at 10:43 am

The motor/chain coasters are pulling their train up a hill over an extended time.
The coasters I'm talking about directly accelerate the train up to the speed needed to make it over the hill in a few seconds.
Some of those use LIMs, others the hydraulic accumulator setup.
Always interesting to see how different teams of engineers come up with different solutions.
And as you said, cost is a major factor.


Demon76 May 14, 2014 at 11:23 am

Surprising that the large magnetic field generated doesn't interfere with the aircraft's electronics. Hope the pilot's credit card magnetic strip doesn't get wiped out.


Dfens May 15, 2014 at 11:14 am

If they'd used an electric motor to launch these airplanes instead of this needlessly expensive and complex linear electromagnet system they could bury the motor below decks where the magnetic field would be easy to shield. A usual, this system only makes sense for the defense contractor's bottom line. They could have built a better system for less money, but all the cost incentives were in place to build the most complicated system for the highest price.


spurlockda May 14, 2014 at 2:18 pm

Having spent 10 yrs onboard carriers, the catapult troughs routinely get flooded with sea water, jet fuel and hydraulic fluids, AFFF and etc.. I worry that the corrosion in all of those cables and connectors!


Mitch S. May 14, 2014 at 2:47 pm

I was thinking that is/was probably one of the toughest challenges.
Being this was developed with the Navy (not just for it) the rigors of the shipboard environment should not have been underestimated.
Hopefully it's a modular setup with good self-diagnostic capability.

Re above comments on battle damage, I don't see that as a major issue.
Drop a bomb through a steam cat and I doubt it'll be back in use for quite a while.
Carriers have more than one cat, there is redundancy.
The concern is having the cats operating reliably during a sustained campaign when planes are being launched at a rapid pace over days.


Bernard May 14, 2014 at 6:44 pm

Cables and connectors are nothing new to modern warships. The Navy already has tons of electronics on their ships that have been in service for decades.


Dfens May 15, 2014 at 11:15 am

They have steam catapults that have been in service for decades too.


Bernard May 15, 2014 at 12:50 pm

Yea, we already know that…


TonyC. May 14, 2014 at 3:52 pm

The reliability of this equipment in the real world is yet to be proven. The stresses on the shuttle assembly will be the key. The old steam catapults were more or less immune to salt air and water. There is going to be alot of tikering until they get it right.


Bernard May 15, 2014 at 12:57 pm

It should actually be more reliable as there are fewer parts that can fail and fewer parts that will experience wear and tear from ordinary use. It's like the difference between a kerosene lamp and a light bulb. The kerosene lamp was old tech but it required far more maintenance.


Chris May 14, 2014 at 3:57 pm

I am sure it will be "hardened" against EMP…… But hopefully all variables were examined, costs versus benefits over steam, reliability, maintenance, and service life… BTW, since China is considering the same system, are we buying theirs….LOL


DLB May 14, 2014 at 4:43 pm

Probably should… It would cost a tenth of what we can make it for.


CaptainDoc May 14, 2014 at 10:58 pm

When a carrier is at sea for an extended time heat build up, all over the ship, pumps fail, electrical systems fail, electronics fail, hydraulics fail and lots of fires occur in electrical panels but nothing that can't be repaired quickly. If this system is to be tested it would be a better test to use it under extended at sea period of more than 60 days. This will not be done. I have been on carriers on extended periods at sea serving as a damage control man, you know the ones on the nucleus fire party that puts fires out. and things break from that kind of usage. This magnetic system is going to generate heat and there will be failures so test the launch system in real atmospheres of heavy use. The loss of one bird will be a serious hit on the ships complement and they would shut the systems down while investigating is underway. This makes it hard for the carrier to complete their missions if the cats are out.


Tomato Juice May 14, 2014 at 11:22 pm

What happens when there is an EMP attack near the carrier? I wonder if there is anything in place incase that happens.


mrlee May 15, 2014 at 5:31 am

Now that would be telling more than you are supposed to be privy to.


Mark May 15, 2014 at 9:48 am

If they did not harden it against such a threat, we have many terms for such failure.


Mitch S. May 15, 2014 at 9:49 am

EMP stands for Electro-Magnetic Pulse.
The point of EMALS is to turn a huge jolt of electricity into a pulse(s) of magnetic field strong enough to launch an aircraft.
It's one of the last things likely to be bothered by an EMP (it creates it's own every time its used)


Dfens May 15, 2014 at 1:00 pm

What the hell are you talking about? TJ is right. Having these huge magnetic coils strung all over the ship is a big issue for EMP.


Mitch S. May 15, 2014 at 2:42 pm

I am not an expert on EMP and am guessing based on my knowledge and common sense…
… but it's generally more delicate transistorized devices that are susceptible to EMP.
Yes, large runs of wire can have currents induced in them (so large voltages can build up in power transmission grids) but EMALS itself puts large pulses through it's wiring and it's high current wiring is likely shielded to protect other devices on the carrier. Maybe an EMP might affect it during a cat launch but other than it's control electronics (which have to be hardened like all MIL stuff) I'd be surprised if it's vulnerable.


Dfens May 16, 2014 at 9:02 am

Think of how an alternator works. An alternator makes electricity by moving a magnetic field through a coil of wire. An EMP is a moving magnetic field. Anytime it hits a coil of wire it is going to generate electricity. Depending on the strength and speed of that field and the number of loops in the coil of wire it cuts across, that's what determines the amount of voltage it will induce in the circuit. If you shield that coil of wire with a lot of steel, it's going to act as a Faraday cage and route the energy of the EMP around the coil. When you move those coils up near the deck of a ship they can still be adequately shielded, but clearly their susceptibility to EMP is greater than it is down deeper in a ship's hull.

swjdsmith May 15, 2014 at 2:40 am

The comment: "We’re getting to an air wing that requires higher energy launches and EMALS is much more capable when it comes to higher launch energy requirements,” really makes no sense. The carriers have essentially the E-2's and various versions of the F/A-18. Weight wise these aircraft do not measure up to the aircraft of the 60's-80's. That is the A-3, A-6, F-4, F-14, and EA-6B. The laws of physics state that the greater the mass the more energy it takes to move the object. The F/A-18E/F/G certainly does not weigh more than these older aircraft. So how can the air wing of today require higher energy launches?


mrlee May 15, 2014 at 5:34 am

Well, they did land a C-130 on a carrier back in the 60s.


blight_ May 16, 2014 at 6:55 pm

C-130s did not arrest or catapult.


Richard May 15, 2014 at 5:38 am

I was the team leader for the contractor who built this prototype in conjunction with General Atomics. In my 40 years it is definitely one of my most memorable projects. Projects like this make me proud to be an American while doing my part for the US Military branches.


Mark May 15, 2014 at 9:52 am

Thank you. I hope (but don't say – incase you are tempted) that it was designed to run fill with ocean water and harden against EMP attacks.


Mark May 15, 2014 at 9:53 am



Richard May 15, 2014 at 5:41 am

In addition this doubles the number launches before performing an airframe inspection from 2,500 to 5,000. And it is much easier on the pilots as well.


Mitch S. May 15, 2014 at 11:46 am

Am I correct guessing that EMALS uses a feedback loop that monitors the launch and can adjust the cat energy?
So if an aircraft hasn't reached a determined speed halfway through the cat (perhaps because of low engine output or incorrect weight setting) the EMALS can boost the second half of the cat?


Jkoper May 15, 2014 at 7:18 am

Garrett/AiResearch built a linear induction motor powered rail test vehicle for the DOT in 1971. It set a new speed record for steel wheel on rail of 256 mph in the early '70s. The testing was done at the test center in Pueblo, CO.


frenchie May 16, 2014 at 9:28 pm

I find it funny about all the comments on this post. Many issues are easily fixed or address. As for battle damage just depends on how it is damage just like a steam catapult. But something says it will be easier to fix. Most roller costers being built now use this technology. Lower maintenance lower failure rate not as dangerous to work on. One thing this system does provide is longer lasting airframes. Steam catapults go full force from the beginning then need massive water brakes. This system can give a much smoother acceleration amd don’t need water brakes as the motor it self is the brakes.


Doug May 18, 2014 at 9:52 am

I like the idea of new tech like this, but one thing I wonder about, will this not
generate a small EMP that could be tracked ?


Mike May 19, 2014 at 7:58 pm

Better question is what if the ship is attacked by EMP! Do we have a carrier that cannot launch?


clashofclanseasycheats.blogspot.com May 18, 2014 at 6:06 pm

I feel this is one of the so much significant info for me.
And i’m satisfied reading your article. But should remark on some
basic issues, The web site taste is ideal, the articles is truly great : D.
Excellent process, cheers


movies dvd May 19, 2014 at 8:30 am

And by using the compatible DVD copy software, your work
can be done so easily. Instead the author recommends that you use the mencoder and mplayer documentation. Besides,
there’s no need to carry a bunch of discs around when you don’t have


APN May 19, 2014 at 9:27 am

Connectivity att the easiest, most convenient way possible.
There are many wesites that oftfer prepaid online recharge services or bill payments.
It helps us to stay connected anywhere anytiume with
people from all over the world.


ignition key Made May 19, 2014 at 9:31 am

The bump-proof locks mayy be more expensive, but will give
you quantity of protection. Thus by hiring a experiencd and professional locksmith you are able to
assure of hat your business are secured and safe
which enable you to run your business efficiently. If this has never haopened
to you, then try to putt yourfself in those other people’s shoes and imagine getting stranded
in thhe parking lot in the middle of tthe night because you accidentally left
your car keys in the ignition.


biodegradable pet waste bags May 19, 2014 at 7:31 pm

I do not even understand how I stopped up right here, but I assumed this put up was good.
I do not know who you’re however certainly you are going to a well-known blogger if you happen to aren’t already.


Woodrow May 20, 2014 at 12:57 am

I know this website presents quality depending posts and extra information, is there any other web site which offers such information in quality?


Mavis May 20, 2014 at 7:58 am

Hello colleagues, its wonderful paragraph about tutoringand entirely defined, keep it up all the time.


cwiczenia na plaski brzuch May 20, 2014 at 8:41 am

I used to be recommended this web site by means
of my cousin. I am not sure whether this put up is written by
way of him as no one else realize such distinct approximately my problem.
You’re incredible! Thanks!


weight Loss May 20, 2014 at 9:40 am

My family members all the time say that I am killing my time here at web,
but I know I am getting familiarity everyday by reading thes nice posts.


ssh commands May 20, 2014 at 9:45 am

I wߋuld liuke tοo thank you for thе efforts ƴߋu ave pput in penning thiѕ
site. I’m hoping to see thhe same Һigh-grade content Ьy you later on aas
ѡell. In fact, yur creative writing abilities ɦаs encouraged mе to get my оwn, personal blog noԝ


andreathestoryteller.com May 20, 2014 at 2:11 pm

Great information. Lucky me I discovered your website by accident (stumbleupon).
I have saved as a favoorite for later!


reviews braces for men May 20, 2014 at 2:15 pm

From there you can give it a Trapezohedron to evolve it
into her: Omega Weapon. When the goal should be to don this product every evening provided that they might, My partner and i notice this as being a issue simply just holding out to occur.
This is the basic mechanism for the effectiveness of this type of back support.


femmestyle klinik erfahrungen May 20, 2014 at 3:06 pm

Hello Deɑr, are youu in faϲt visiting this ԝebsite regularly,
iff sо аfter thɑt yߋu will without doubt get pleasant experience.


graphic organizers May 20, 2014 at 4:28 pm

I was suggestsd this web site bby wway of myy cousin.
I am no longer positive whether this submit is written by him as no onee else recognise such specified approximately my problem.
You’rewonderful! Thank you!


portaloptics.com May 20, 2014 at 5:02 pm

Fastidious answer back in return off this question with real argumemts and describing all about that.


health May 20, 2014 at 9:26 pm

As a person grows older there are going to be issues
with swelling and pain in all the joints. prebiotics market with mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) predicted to be the fastest growing product.
When e-waste finds its way into landfills such toxic metals
seep out and contaminate the soil and water, causing health problems
and polluting the atmosphere.


Addicting Games May 21, 2014 at 1:24 am

Anyhow, I commenced paying out much extra and further time celebs like
Woman Ga – Ga and Usher. Addiction is when you are
not able to end your self acquiring absent from it and you need to do it much more and you crave
it when it is not there. In Lovable Catz, you choose a cat from the unique breeds, name it, give it enjoys and hates,
and just take treatment of it just like the puppies in Pet Pupz.


Cheapest price for Canon EOS 20D 8.2MP Digital SLR Camera with EF S 17 85mm f/4 5.6 IS USM Lens May 21, 2014 at 5:37 am

These may be in body language, voice, pacing, or
sharing personal stories. The manual focus aid can also be very very good
considering the very fact that it really is a small sized camera.

In this experiment, media coverage was permitted
in the Sussex Court of Chancery, and courtrooms in New Castle,
Kent and Sussex Counties.


Kristopher May 21, 2014 at 7:42 am

Hey there this is kind of of off topic but I was wondering if
blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code
with HTML. I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding expertise so I wanted to get guidance from
someone with experience. Any help would be greatly appreciated!


หวย May 21, 2014 at 7:58 am

Fantastic website. Lots of helpful info here. I’m sending it to some pals ans additionally sharing
in delicious. And naturally, thank you to your effort!


Lukas May 21, 2014 at 8:23 am

Hi there! Would you mind if I share your blog with my myspace group?
There’s a lot of folks that I think would really appreciate your content.
Please let me know. Thank you


Hugh May 21, 2014 at 7:33 pm

Thanks , I’ve just been looking for information approximately this subject for ages and yours is the greatest I have discovered so far. However, what about the bottom line? Are you certain about the supply?


reggaehangouttv.net May 22, 2014 at 9:02 am

These impressive games may also come with a excellent version, with more packs and
maps of new diverse autos and weapons. In my opinion, this is probably the most genius concept
in gaming history. Each of the earlier call of duty games had faced large unprecedented achievement.


trening na silowni May 22, 2014 at 7:08 pm

I visited several web sites but the audio quality for audio songs current at this web page is
in fact wonderful.


Roseanne May 22, 2014 at 7:27 pm

Good web site you have got here.. It’s difficult to
find excellent writing like yours nowadays. I truly appreciate people like
you! Take care!!


WMG May 22, 2014 at 11:53 pm

They take you through converting your Net – Zero
account to one of the types that can talk to Outlook, through configuring
Outlook, right down to testing the connection to make sure
everything is perfect. Block the use of non-essential applications
such as P2P file sharing, IM, FTP clients, unauthorized email clients, wireless network connections, and smartphone and PDA synchronization tools.
If you’re using a webmail service for your company, this can be a disadvantage because some people find this type of unprofessional


forum sportowe May 23, 2014 at 1:26 am

Thanks in favor of sharing such a nice idea, article is good,
thats why i have read it entirely


Get Rid of Herpes Review May 23, 2014 at 3:43 am

Wow that was odd. I just wrote an incredibly long comment but after I clicked
submit my comment didn’t show up. Grrrr… well I’m not writing all that over again. Anyway, just wanted
to say wonderful blog!


Chaturbate Sweetcristine19 Private Show video May 23, 2014 at 11:54 am

Chaturbate Sweetcristine19 Private Show video
Download: http://bit.ly/1vx3Osj

chaturbate Sweetcristine19 anal show,
chaturbate Sweetcristine19 sextape,
chaturbate Sweetcristine19 dildo show,
chaturbate Sweetcristine19 recorded show,


sport dla kazdego May 23, 2014 at 12:29 pm

Good day! I know this is kinda off topic but I’d figured I’d ask.

Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest authoring a blog article or vice-versa?
My website covers a lot of the same subjects as yours and I feel we could
greatly benefit from each other. If you happen to be interested
feel free to send me an email. I look forward to hearing from you!

Awesome blog by the way!


Internet Download Manager Crack May 23, 2014 at 8:15 pm

Magnificent goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to
and you’re just too magnificent. I really like what you have acquired here, really like what you are saying and the way
in which you say it. You make it entertaining and you still take care of to keep it sensible.
I can’t wait to read far more from you. This is
actually a great website.


Импорт, экспорт May 24, 2014 at 12:13 am

Hi! I know this is kinda off topic however , I’d figured I’d ask.

Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest authoring a
blog post or vice-versa? My website discusses a lot of the same
subjects as yours and I believe we could greatly benefit from each
other. If you are interested feel free to send me an e-mail.
I look forward to hearing from you! Fantastic blog
by the way!


godzilla 2014 film complet fr May 25, 2014 at 2:02 pm

Thanks for sharing your thoughts on emals. Regards


autocad 2015 crack file May 27, 2014 at 2:17 pm

Hi there just wanfed tto guve yoou a quick heads up annd lett you know a
ffew oof thhe images aren’t loading properly. I’m not sure why but I think its a
linking issue. I’ve tried itt in twoo different internet browsers and bboth show the same results.


Chaturbate Darlingextacie Private Show video 19.05.2014 May 28, 2014 at 2:52 am

Chaturbate Darlingextacie Private Show video
Download: http://bit.ly/1j4NfKK

chaturbate Darlingextacie anal show,
chaturbate Darlingextacie sextape,
chaturbate Darlingextacie dildo show,
chaturbate Darlingextacie recorded show,


idsource.colostate.edu May 29, 2014 at 10:43 pm

In order to cope in a fast-paced market, new applications are expected.
An HVAC repair business is most often started by a technician who’s
learned the trade through previous employment. ” Employees at Nike are encouraged to become curious and ready to accept new ideas, whatever their source.


cheap hermes bag for men May 30, 2014 at 8:44 am

cheap hermes bag for men
There’s definately a lot to know about this subject. I
like all the points you’ve made.


causes June 1, 2014 at 12:43 am

try minecraft for free online noob gamer


Killion June 1, 2014 at 3:51 pm

Excellent blog you have got here.. It’s difficult to find high quality writing like yours nowadays. I honestly appreciate people like you! Take care!!


top 15 it certifications 2013 June 6, 2014 at 12:53 am

This blog was… how do I say it? Relevant!! Finally I have found something which helped me.
Thank you!


Subway Surfers key cheats June 10, 2014 at 2:19 am

I used to be recommended this website through my cousin. I’m not positive
whether this submit is written through him as nobody
else understand such exact approximately my problem. You’re amazing!
Thank you!


Oumoubou June 10, 2014 at 5:15 am

Thanks for one’s marvelous posting! I really enjoyed reading it, you happen to
be a great author. I will remember to bookmark your blog and will often come back someday.

I want to encourage you to definitely continue your great posts, have a nice evening!


correct weight for height June 10, 2014 at 10:59 am

Because the admin of this website is working, no
question very shortly it will be well-known, due to
its feature contents.


fitness June 10, 2014 at 7:41 pm

Planning before you indulge yourself or just follow
the instructions given on the guidelines and food bars.
So, what is the most sought after for muscle-building workouts.
His boyish charm and well-toned body is in food for bodybuilding fact eating more frequently when they
are on a weekly basis. But what if your body produce more energy.
The huge muscles with perfection are familiar with all
the poses that show off their food for bodybuilding muscular definition.


debt relief service June 12, 2014 at 5:01 am

Remarkable things here. I’m very satisfied to look your post.
Thank you so much and I am taking a look forward to contact you.
Will you please drop me a mail?


landscaping conroe tx June 14, 2014 at 8:28 pm

I visited several websites except the audio feature for audio songs existing at this web site is actually fabulous.


fitness instructor insurance June 16, 2014 at 10:38 pm

There is a good bodybuilding dumbbells body always boosts confidence.
If you Google” bodybuilding” is this? You can do or will be differences in bodybuilding this year.
Sorry to be diligently stabilized and followed.
Lack of proper diet and consume natural food supplements, but one
must first BELIEVE that you get adequate rest and recover faster.
In this type of side effects. Traditionally, these bodybuilding weight loss are closely related.
These lotions can give you a pumped-up feeling in my
own experience.


gaastars.com June 18, 2014 at 1:04 am

If you are going for finest contents like me, only pay a quick visit this
website everyday since it presents quality
contents, thanks


Pakar SEO 2014 June 29, 2014 at 12:07 am

Just wish to say your article is as amazing. The clarity in your post is just
nice and i could assume you are an expert on this subject.

Well with your permission let me to grab your feed to keep updated with forthcoming post.
Thanks a million and please carry on the enjoyable work.


Cerys July 4, 2014 at 2:21 am

Very rapidly this site will be famous among all blogging visitors, due to it’s good articles


Free online auction www.auctionsmania.com.Free registration and unlimited posting. July 7, 2014 at 11:21 pm

I have been exploring for a bit for any high quality articles
or blog posts in this sort of house . Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upon this web site.
Studying this information So i’m happy to exhibit that
I have a very excellent uncanny feeling I found out exactly what I needed.

I most certainly will make sure to don?t put out of your mind this site and
give it a glance regularly.


where to go for std testing July 13, 2014 at 1:01 pm

It really is correct: one in 5 children will be sexually solicited on-line.
However, as mentioned previously, not all sexually transmitted infections are symptomatic.
If you notice any of these signs, you should be performing something right.


Austin July 17, 2014 at 3:12 pm

Hey there! Do you know if they make any plugins to safeguard against hackers? I’m kinda paranoid about losing everything I’ve worked hard on. Any recommendations?


make money at home July 23, 2014 at 7:47 am

Market-dcd.com works with advertisers to pay you for
signing up for free sites, completing free offers, taking surveys, trying
products and shopping online. Earn $1 per active referral (must complete 1 offer) and 25% of their
cash offer earnings. Earn even more cash by participating in our daily, weekly & monthly contests!


KB Properties July 24, 2014 at 4:45 am

With more land available, improved connectivity and proximity to IT corridors,
the suburban and peripheral locations are witnessing the emergence of a number of residential projects at competitive prices.
Adequate liquidity is essential for the business to minimize location effects.
Would you be able to meet with our lender tomorrow during the day or in the evening.


Louisa July 29, 2014 at 2:00 am

Hey fellas !! I am MISTIE STEPHENS. I am from New York. I am turning 24. I and my sister go to The New Preparatory of Crisp Education in Burbank. I work as a Bricklayer. I also like to Jigsaw Puzzles. My daddy name is Richard and he is a Landlord. My mother is a Philologist.


Isaac August 6, 2014 at 2:01 am

Hi are using Wordpress for your blog platform? I’m new to the blog world but I’m trying to get started and set up my own. Do you need any html coding expertise to make your own blog? Any help would be really appreciated!


money August 7, 2014 at 8:42 am

So if you have ever asked yourself “What is the fastest way to make money. This article is about generating sales with articles. Set up your blog or website and start writing articles to submit.


to do list template pdf August 13, 2014 at 12:05 pm

Hey there! I’m at work browsing your blog from my new
iphone! Just wanted to say I love reading your blog and look forward to all your posts!

Keep up the outstanding work!


James August 17, 2014 at 8:04 am

I believe everything posted was very logical. But, what about this? what if you typed a catchier post title? I am not suggesting your content isn’t solid., but what if you added a post title to possibly get a person’s attention? I mean Navy to Test Electromagnetic Catapult on Carrier is kinda boring. You might peek at Yahoo’s front page and watch how they create post headlines to get people to click. You might try adding a video or a related pic or two to grab people excited about everything’ve written. Just my opinion, it would make your website a little livelier.


bereavement counselling herfordshire August 21, 2014 at 9:49 am

I blog often and I genuinely appreciate your content.
Your article has really peaked my interest. I will bookmark your website
and keep checking for new details about once a week.
I subscribed to your Feed as well.


Leola August 22, 2014 at 6:31 am

That looks a lot like my own enclosure my family and i got a hold of just lately, so happy with it for any individual found on the fence in regards to buying one,
do it now, you wont regret it


Darren August 22, 2014 at 7:19 pm

Fantastic page, previously been scouting forever for tips on the perfect rattan furniture for
our home and in our back garden. This website seriously helpedgreat blog some
great info here


Etsuko August 28, 2014 at 6:59 am

Hello, this weekend is pleasant in favor of me, as this occasion i am reading this great informative article here at my house.


コーチ バッグ 新作 2014 August 30, 2014 at 7:57 pm

I read this article completely on the topic of the
difference of hottest and preceding technologies, it’s remarkable article.


Haley August 31, 2014 at 12:14 pm

What’s up, I check your blog daily. Your humoristic style is witty, keep up the good work!


Louise September 2, 2014 at 7:45 am

I read this piece of writing fully concerning the resemblance of most up-to-date and earlier technologies,
it’s remarkable article.


firearms reloading forums September 3, 2014 at 2:13 am

This article will help the internet users for setting up new
webpage or even a weblog from start to end.


Inez September 4, 2014 at 9:38 am

I do consider all the ideas you’ve introduced in your post. They’re really convincing and will definitely work. Nonetheless, the posts are very brief for beginners. May you please extend them a bit from subsequent time? Thank you for the post.


Terrie September 5, 2014 at 9:09 pm

Billboard companies choose their locations carefully.
It’s kinda property tax out of sight out of mind. Third there is
difficulty in your timeshare being in Orlando, Mexico,
based real estate consulting company. Wisconsin Real Estate Making The Dairy Land has never looked so good!
Get Free financial flyers. The term real estate investments and further
build property tax your portfolio.


best movie site September 9, 2014 at 9:41 am

Alive Mind Media (a division of Lorber HT Digital), Arts
Alliance America, APL, Anderson Productions Ltd, Alexandra Juhasz, Blowback Productions,
Bradley Beesley, Brave New Films, Braverman Productions, Inc.
Great time travel scenes have shown up in movies that weren’t explicitly about time travel.

- This is a movie about friendly monsters who live in the closet
and try to scare kids at night.


ขายผ้าห่มลายการ์ตูน September 9, 2014 at 5:45 pm

This is the right webpage for anybody who would like to understand this topic.
You understand so much its almost hard to argue with you (not that I really will
need to…HaHa). You definitely put a brand new spin on a subject that has been discussed for ages.

Great stuff, just excellent!


long nails September 12, 2014 at 1:06 am

This info is priceless. When can I find out


Perangkat spesial Audio Walkman Sony NWZ-A17 dan Sony MDR-1A September 12, 2014 at 10:25 am

I’m sure there are other reasons why people want these, but whatever the
reason is, I am happy to sell it to them. Business – Insider released an article Tuesday,
April 15 showing children’s reaction to seeing a Walkman.

The jack, the controls, and the port may seem a lot for this small device but these
are very well laid out on the player.


Anxious September 13, 2014 at 12:34 pm

We are Registered pharmacist in Srilanka.We have 4 Years experience of
online medicine selling.We selling priscription medicine and
another all medicines. We ship orders by slpost register air mail and EMS(Express mail).shipping method can choose as you need.We need to tell you we are ebay sellers
before and an also seller yet in ioffer ..We accepting paypal and skrill
payments.an also you can send money to us using money order like
western union.All items ship within 2 days after payment cleared.We
send parcels image and tracking number to buyers by email.Join with
us and get original medicines for good price….www.lkpharmacy.com


best healthy food delivery dubai September 14, 2014 at 2:56 pm

Your method of explaining the whole thing inn tbis paragraph is really
good, all can without difficulty understand it, Thanks a


smartphone barato September 14, 2014 at 9:32 pm

Hi there to all, how is all, I think every one is getting more from this site, and your views are
fastidious in favor of new users.


natural Cleanse plus September 14, 2014 at 9:56 pm

My family always say that I am killing my time here at net,
except I know I am getting familiarity everyday
by reading thes good content.


Cher Dress to kill September 15, 2014 at 1:38 am

John Walsh also made a few digs about Cher immediately, branding the woman “moody and miserable”, which can be
rather unprofessional received from one of the X Factor
judges. The modern “X Factor” injury, Aiden Grimshaw was fast
to defend Lloyd even though, saying, “Cher is usually lovely. I think it turned out always will be hard regarding who got such poor stick at such a early age to go around beaming but she’s amazing and she is done really well. very well

Cher Lloyd is on rather shaky ground ready popularity in case Katie Waissel is identified out of the competition now, she might become the brand-new “villain” of the present.
Louis Walsh was absolutely right when he claimed, ” She has to learn to be good to everybody – because you’ll meet them on the way down. micron


Marlys September 15, 2014 at 4:15 am

Right here is the perfect blog for anybody who really wants to understand this topic.
You understand so much its almost tough to argue with you (not that I personally would want to…HaHa).
You definitely put a new spin on a subject that has been written about for decades.
Excellent stuff, just great!


website developer September 15, 2014 at 5:47 am

If you wiish for to grow your knowledge only keep visiting this website and be updated with the most up-to-date information posted here.


i would like to work from home any ideas September 15, 2014 at 5:48 pm

Definitely believe that which you said. Your favorite justification seemed to be on the internet the simplest thing to be aware of.
I say to you, I certainly get annoyed while people think about worries that they
just do not know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top as well as defined out the whole thing without having side effect ,
people can take a signal. Will probably be back to get more.


www.dailymotion.Com September 15, 2014 at 10:21 pm

Information Cash 2 will educate you how you can earn affiliate commissions just by utilizing
Facebook fan pages.


windshield replacements in san diego September 16, 2014 at 12:07 pm

Criminal law windshield installation san diego and

constitutional law – go together. This category also covers cases of post-traumatic windshield installation san diego stress.

A judge will rarely grant a request to dismiss unless

certain criteria exist.


criminal defense September 16, 2014 at 8:30 pm

These service providers have been providing quality Bosch Water System if you exist in the Brisbane region. Whether you want plumber York services, or need the advice of someone that you trust and let them
tristarlaw do it over again. Another way is you just read reviews of different plumbers in your
neighborhood? We would have far more issues to seem for when seeking for a
trusted plumber.


blight_ May 14, 2014 at 12:38 pm

I can't imagine a dual system working very well either. If it appears to launch well on ground it is on the way to being ready for shipboard use. Not sure about battle damage repairability though…only one way to find out when it comes to that one.


gritch38 May 14, 2014 at 1:16 pm

we'll just have to wait and see….


Dylan May 15, 2014 at 12:28 pm

If electromagnetic systems were as simple or simpler than steam to build and repair, I think we would have skipped steam engines a century or so ago. ;)


Dfens May 15, 2014 at 12:40 pm

Right, because we launch airplanes at Mach 2. Did you read about those "basic engineering principles" on the back of a cereal box, bozo?


Curt May 15, 2014 at 3:15 pm

And, like all steam systems, steam catapults require huge numbers of people to keep running and massive amounts of depot level work on a regular basis. And of course, once you mangle the track sufficiently, it doesn't matter if it is steam or magnetic, the little shuttle isn't moving.


Mitch S. May 16, 2014 at 10:33 am

Sure, a current is likely to be induced in the EMP coils but the issue is how susceptible the system is to damage by such energy.
I wouldn't like to be a guy servicing such coils when an EMP strikes but I doubt the coils themselves would care much.
In the 1962 test it was delicate things such as filiments connected to long power lines or large windings that were affected. Breakers were tripped but AFAIK generators weren't damaged.
That's why if "The Big One" hits your '57 Chevy will likely start but your modern car with transistors running on at low voltages with microamps of current will probably not.
Similarly our modern home with its microchipped appliances is much more vulnerable to lightening induced surges than that of our parents (That old Frigidaire would need a pretty close hit to be fried).
And that's the limit of my knowledge so I'll leave any more comment to someone more expert.
(Interesting topic, may we never get to test it directly!)


00 Del May 16, 2014 at 11:41 am

Dylan is not the bozo. You're the one who doesn't understand the purpose of this system, or any other for that matter, bolo.


Dylan May 19, 2014 at 11:01 am

Just some numbers for you-
2 seconds
150 feet
Aircraft weighing up to 79,000lbs

If you have an electric motor hooked to a cable that can do that, you could be a very rich man.


Dfens May 16, 2014 at 1:56 pm

The control circuity is what you worry about, not the coils themselves.


Dfens May 16, 2014 at 1:58 pm

Get a room.


00 Del May 16, 2014 at 3:51 pm

Another ad hominem argument, another failure to understand the situation, bolo.


Dfens May 20, 2014 at 10:06 am

Well, I know where to get the electromagnets for it. There are hundreds, if not thousands of them strung across the deck of the Ford. All I would need is 6 of them, and a chain would work better than a cable here.


blight_ June 5, 2014 at 2:29 pm

It's always a different myth. First it was the defense buildup, then it was SDI, then it was Iran-Contra, then it was Reagan giving Gorbachev the stink-eye.


Leave a Comment

Previous post:

Next post: